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Daily Current Affair for UPSC-CSE and State PCS (4 July 2024)

NATO , PARTICULATE MATTER, PM2.5, swami vivelanand, Amaravati , unesco, heritage sites, The Australia-India Strategic Research Fund (AISRF)


Daily Current Affair (4 July 2024)

Useful For Prelims


Spike in pollution levels may raise death 

rates in cities with cleaner air, says stud


  • The scientists analysed pollution and death registry data from Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai, Pune, Shimla, and Varanasi.
  • Nearly 30,000 deaths, or 7.2% of the annual deaths in the 10 cities, were due to short-term PM 2.5.
  • published in the Lancet Planet Health.

What is PM

  • PM stands for particulate matter (also called particle pollution): the term for a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air. Some particles, such as dust, dirt, soot, or smoke, are large or dark enough to be seen with the naked eye. Others are so small they can only be detected using an electron microscope.
  • Particle pollution includes:

    • PM10 : inhalable particles, with diameters that are generally 10 micrometers and smaller; and
    • PM2.5 : fine inhalable particles, with diameters that are generally 2.5 micrometers and smaller.
    •  The average human hair is about 70 micrometers in diameter – making it 30 times larger than the largest fine particle.

Sources of PM

  • Most particles form in the atmosphere as a result of complex reactions of chemicals such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, which are pollutants emitted from power plants, industries and automobiles.
  • Emitted directly from a source, such as construction sites, unpaved roads, fields, smokestacks or fires.
  • PM  is also released from tobacco smoking, candle burning, cooking activities like sautéing, frying, irregular maintenance of kitchen chimneys, kerosene heaters, gas stoves, fireplace operation, etc.
  • Meteorological factors like wind speed, wind direction, and weather conditions such as rainfall affect the processes of transport and the fate of PM in the environment.

What is PM2.5 Particulate Matter?

  • PM2.5 is an ultra-fine inhalable particle having a diameter of 2.5 micrometers, and it can penetrate deep into the lungs, causing respiratory diseases and ailments. It also comprises metals and heavy metal ions (Cadmium, Nickel, Potassium, Copper), organic and inorganic compounds, allergens, many microbial compounds, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).
  • Research experiments have shown that concentration rises at night.

Factors for Increased PM2.5 Concentration

  • Increased air temperature during the winter season and atmospheric inversions in the Northern hemisphere increase PM2.5 concentration in the air. During the summer season, stationary air mass, forest fires, and secondary aerosol formation increase PM2.5 concentration.


Particulate matter affects the environment as well as human health. Reduced vision, acid rain, higher air pollution, material damage, ecosystem damage, degraded plant and tree function, contaminated streams and oceans, and reduced crop yield and productivity are all the impact of PM2.5 on the environment.

1. Production of haze
Road accidents are more likely as a result of the haze's decreased visibility. The materialistic surroundings, including structures like sculptures, monuments, and buildings, have been damaged by particulate matter.

2. Fertility of the soil
Particulate matter with varying chemical compositions exhibits varying impacts. Additionally, it has an impact on soil fertility, which lowers crop yields and yields from agriculture.

3. Cycle of nutrients
Particulate matter disrupts the rhizosphere's ability to recycle nutrients.

4. Photosynthesis in Plants
When fine particles accumulate on leaves, they prevent sunlight from reaching the leaves and interfere with photosynthesis in plants. Regarding a given direction of photosynthetic tissues, this lowers photon flux reach.

5. Buildup within aquatic environments
Marine and aquatic ecosystems suffer as harmful PM2.5-containing heavy metals accumulate in water bodies, for example streams and oceans. A diminished capacity to endure acidification cause the death of several aquatic life form. 

6. Unsettling biodiversity
The food chain and food web in the environment are also disturbed by particulate matter due to their interdependent dependencies, disparate toxicity tolerances.

Impacts of PM2.5 on human health

  • Penetration to the respiratory system :-Particulate matters have a tendency to carry toxic materials with themselves due to their reduced diameter and increased surface area.
  • Increased Hospitalizations & absenteeism :-Exposure to PM2.5 increases hospitalizations, visits to the emergency room, and absenteeism from schools and offices, especially in cases with pre-existing disorders, old people, and children. Particulate matter causes pneumonia and bronchitis.
  • Reduced antioxidants
  • Reduced metabolic activities.


  • Stop stubble burning.
  • Diesel vehicles are major source of particle pollution, it can be reduced by replacing older engines with new engines
  • Conserve energy by using solar energy, bio-gas, rainwater harvesting etc. to control pollution from particulate matter
  • City Traffic Management and public awareness program
  • Awareness about indore pollution.
  • Air Purifiers.

Step Taken By Government

  • National Clean Air Campaign (NCAP)
  • National Clean Air Programme :- 132 non-attainment cities identified by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).
  • Non-attainment cities are those that have fallen short of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for over five years.
  • System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) Portal.
  • Air Quality Index: Developed for eight pollutants viz. PM2.5, PM10, Ammonia, Lead, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, ozone, and carbon monoxide.
  • Graded Response Action Plan (for Delhi).
  • For Reducing Vehicular Pollution:
  • BS-VI Vehicles,
  • Push for Electric Vehicles (EVs),
  • Odd-Even Policy as an emergency measure (for Delhi).
  • New Commission for Air Quality Management
  • Subsidy to farmers for buying Turbo Happy Seeder (THS) Machine for reducing stubble burning.
  • National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP): Under NAMP, four air pollutants viz. SO2, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 have been identified for regular monitoring at all locations.

Will rebuild Amaravati city as soon as possible: Naidu


  • Amaravati, famous for the Amareswara temple, which is dedicated to Lord Shiva dates back to the 2nd century BCE and was once the capital of the Satavahanas and also the Pallava kings. 
  • Amaravati was a seat of Buddhism prior to the rise of Satavahanas, and a stupa and monastery were built there during the reign of Emperor Ashoka (269-232 BC) under Mauryan Empire.
  • On the right bank of the river Krishna 
  • It is named after the historic Amaravathi site adjacent to Dharanikota, the ancient city, that served as the capital of the Satavahana dynasty more than 2,200 years ago.
  • The city used to have a large Buddhist Stupa now known as Amaravati Stupa.

India to host 46th UNESCO heritage 

panel sessio


  • Event organised by the Archaeological Survey of India.
  • The World Heritage Committee has representatives from 21 State Parties to the World Heritage Convention (1972) elected by the General Assembly.
  • The World Heritage Convention, formally the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, is an international treaty signed on 23 November 1972, which created the World Heritage Sites, with the primary goals of nature conservation and the preservation and security of cultural properties.

World Heritage Sites In India

  • 42 Properties inscribedon the World Heritage List
Cultural (34)
Agra Fort (1983), Ajanta Caves (1983)
  • Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara at Nalanda, Bihar (2016)
  • Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (1989), Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park (2004)
  • Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) (2004), Churches and Convents of Goa (1986)
  • Dholavira: a Harappan City (2021) ,Elephanta Caves (1987), Ellora Caves (1983), Fatehpur Sikri (1986)
  • Great Living Chola Temples (1987, 2004), Group of Monuments at Hampi (1986)
  • Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram (1984), Group of Monuments at Pattadakal (1987)
  • Hill Forts of Rajasthan (2013), Historic City of Ahmadabad (2017)
  • Humayun's Tomb, Delhi (1993), Jaipur City, Rajasthan (2019)
  • Kakatiya Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple, Telangana (2021)
  • Khajuraho Group of Monuments (1986), Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya (2002)
  • Mountain Railways of India (1999, 2005, 2008), Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi (1993)
  • Rani-ki-Vav (the Queen’s Stepwell) at Patan, Gujarat (2014), Red Fort Complex (2007)
  • Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (2003), Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysalas (2023)
  • Santiniketan (2023), Sun Temple, Konârak (1984), Taj Mahal (1983)
  • The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement (2016)
  • The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur (2010), Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai (2018)
  • Natural (7)
  • Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area (2014), Kaziranga National Park (1985)
  • Keoladeo National Park (1985),Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (1985)
  • Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks (1988, 2005)
  • Sundarbans National Park (1987),Western Ghats (2012)

Mixed (1)  Khangchendzonga National Park (2016)

selection criteria


  1. "To represent a masterpiece of human creative genius"
  2. "To exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design"
  3. "To bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living, or which has disappeared"
  4. "To be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history"
  5. "To be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change"
  6. "To be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance"


  1. "To contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance"
  2. "To be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features"
  3. "To be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals"
  4. "To contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation"


Union Minister Dr. Jitendra Singh announces results of Australia-India StrategicResearch Fund

The Australia-India Strategic Research Fund (AISRF)
  • Bilateral program that supports collaborative research projects between Australia and India. It aims to strengthen the scientific relationship between the two countries and address common challenges through joint research efforts.
  • This year, the AISRF has awarded funding to five projects across various disciplines, including artificial intelligence and machine learning, biotechnology, urban mining and electronic waste recycling, ultralow-cost solar and clean hydrogen technologies.
  • Funding for this year focused on:

    1. Creating an AI-driven platform for monitoring soil carbon sequestration.
    2. Eco-friendly recovery of essential metals from obsolete mobile devices.
    3. Cost-effective solar thermal desalination by systems design with nanomaterials.
    4. Harnessing the immune system's power to combat antimicrobial resistance.
    5. Advanced diagnostics and innovative therapeutics to detect and combat microbial infections.
source :- PIB


PM pays homage to Swami Vivekananda on his Punya Tithi

  • Swami Vivekananda was born on 12th January, 1863, and his name was Narendranath Datta.
  • In 1893, he adopted the name ‘Vivekananda’ at the behest of Maharaja Ajit Singh of the Khetri State
  • Every year, National Youth Day( 12 January) is celebrated to commemorate his birth anniversary.
  • Swami Vivekananda introduced the world to Indian philosophies like Vedanta and Yoga.
  • He advocated ‘neo-Vedanta’, a reinterpretation of Hinduism from a Western perspective, emphasizing the fusion of spirituality and material progress. Education was a key focus for him in the revitalization of the nation, promoting character-building education.
  • His famous speech at the World Parliament of Religion in Chicago in 1893 is well-known.
  • In his writings, he outlined the four paths to attaining moksha - Raja-yoga, Karma-yoga, Jnana-yoga, and Bhakti-yoga. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose referred to Vivekananda as the “maker of modern India.”
  • Swami Vivekananda was the chief disciple of Ramakrishna Paramhansa and founded the Ramakrishna Mission in 1897.
  • The Ramakrishna Mission focuses on value-based education, culture, health, women's empowerment, youth and tribal welfare, and relief and rehabilitation.

Vice-President to visit Kerala on two day tour starting from July 6th

  • Ashtamudi Lake in the Kollam District of the Kerala is a unique wetland ecosystem and a large palm-shaped water body.
  • It is second only in size to the Vembanad estuary ecosystem of the state. 
  • Ashtamudi means 'eight hills or peaks' (Ashta : 'eight'; mudi : 'peaks').
  • The lake is also called the gateway to the backwaters of Kerala and is well known for its houseboat and backwater resorts.
  • Ashtamudi Wetland was included in the list of wetlands of international importance, as defined by the Ramsar Convention for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands
  • Kallada River is a major river discharging into the Ashtamudi Lake.
  • Microplastic pollution :- A recent study has revealed the extent of microplastic pollution in Ashtamudi Lake is a potential public health concerns.


Till Russia do us part? NATO at 75, an enduring alliance


  • POLITICAL – NATO promotes democratic values and enables members to consult and cooperate on defence and security-related issues to solve problems, build trust and, in the long run, prevent conflict.

    MILITARY – NATO is committed to the peaceful resolution of disputes. If diplomatic efforts fail, it has the military power to undertake crisis-management operations. These are carried out under the collective defence clause of NATO's founding treaty – Article 5 of the Washington Treaty or under a United Nations mandate, alone or in cooperation with other countries and international organisations.
  • NATO is committed to the principle that an attack against one or several of its members is considered as an attack against all. This is the principle of collective defence, which is enshrined in Article 5 of the Washington Treaty.
  • NATO is an alliance of countries from Europe and North America. It provides a unique link between these two continents, enabling them to consult and cooperate in the field of defence and security, and conduct multinational crisis-management operations together.
  • The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation came into being on April 4, 1949.

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