v Context: ‘Samudrayaan’ will be India’s expedition to a depth of 6,000 m in the Indian Ocean.
· The Samundrayaan Mission is India’s first manned deep ocean mission.
· The six components of the mission are:
- Development of deep-sea mining technologies and a manned submersible
- Creating ocean climate change advisory services and future climate models
- Innovations for deep-sea biodiversity exploration and conservation
- Deep-sea survey for potential multi-metal hydrothermal mineral sites
- Harnessing energy and freshwater from the ocean
- Establishing an advanced Marine Station for Ocean Biology
· Launched in 2021, the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) is the nodal ministry implementing it.
· MATSYA 6000 is an indigenously built manned submersible under the Samudrayaan Mission.
· Developed by NIOT, it is designed to carry three humans to a depth of 6000 m.
· Aim: To comprehensively study deep-sea resources and marine biodiversity assessment.
With its launch, it will make India the sixth country (after the US, Russia, Japan, France, and China) to have a manned under-sea expedition beyond 5,000 m.
ð National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), Chennai, is an autonomous institute under MoES.
ð A submarine is a self-propelled underwater vessel capable of independent operation for an extended period of time.
ð A submersible is an underwater vehicle that needs to be transported and supported by a larger watercraft or platform. They are smaller and less capable than submarines but can be more versatile and specialised.