v Context: A report published by United Nations University has warned that 27 of the 31 aquifers in India are depleting faster than they can be replenished.
· India is the world's largest groundwater extractor, surpassing China and the US combined.
· As per the Central Ground Water Board, 70% of India's water comes from groundwater sources.
Ø Agricultural overexploitation: Agriculture accounts for over 80% of groundwater use in India.
Ø Inadequate regulation: The Mihir Shah Committee highlighted a lack of focus on institutional innovations in the water sector.
Ø Climate change: Droughts and rising temperatures are causing decreased rainfall and increased evaporation, reducing aquifer recharge.
Ø Urbanisation: Urbanization creates more impervious surfaces, limiting groundwater recharge.
Ø Deforestation: It causes more soil erosion and less rainfall infiltration.
Ø Subsidies on electricity and water
Ø Population growth
Atal Bhujal Yojana (ABY)
· Atal Bhujal Yojana (ABY) is a central sector scheme of the Ministry of Jal Shakti.
· Aim: to improve groundwater management through community participation.
· It will be implemented in priority areas across seven states: Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, MP, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and UP.
· It is funded by the GoI and the World Bank on a 50:50 basis.
Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Catch the Rain
· Catch the Rain is an annual campaign under Jal Shakti Abhiyan.
· Aim: to encourage people to adopt rainwater harvesting practices.
ð Jal Shakti Abhiyan was launched in water-stressed districts by the Ministry of Jal Shakti.
ð It focuses on promoting water conservation and water resource management by:
· NAQUIM is implemented by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB).
· It is a part of the Ground Water Management and Regulation Scheme (a central sector scheme)
· Objectives of NAQUIM are:
v Delineation & characterisation of aquifers in 3D to understand their disposition
v Identification & quantification of groundwater issues
v Development of groundwater management plans
· PMKSY is a centrally sponsored scheme launched in 2015 by the Ministry of Jal Shakti.
v To enhance physical access to water on the farm
v To expand cultivable area under assured irrigation
v To improve on-farm water use efficiency
v To introduce sustainable water conservation practices
· The main components of PMKSY are:
- Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP)
- Har Khet Ko Pani (HKKP): It has four sub-components.
1) Command Area Development (CAD)
2) Surface Minor Irrigation (SMI)
3) Repair, Renovation and Restoration (RRR) of Water Bodies
4) Ground Water Development
- Watershed Development
- Per Drop More Crop
· The Central and State Governments share funds under the scheme at a 60:40 ratio, except for the North Eastern and Himalayan states, where the ratio is 90:10.