Get Start With Your Civil Services Preparation With Expert Teachers. Start Preparation Now

Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia


  • The long-standing conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan has erupted again on September 19 when Azerbaijan launched an offensive military operation and declared victory over the separatist province of Nagorno-Karabakh region.
  • This conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh region is called one of the "Frozen Conflicts" of the world.

About the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict:-

  • The Nagorno-Karabakh is a mountainous region lying in the South Caucasus between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
  • It is officially recognized as part of Azerbaijan, yet, a large part of its population have close cultural, social and historical ties with Armenia.
  • Basically, Nagorno-Karabakh is an ethnic Armenian enclave in Azerbaijan which is connected to Armenia through a 5-km Lachin Corridor.
  • This region has been the center of conflicts between regional powers since the medieval period.
  • In 1921, Nagorno-Karabakh was a part of Azerbaijan SSR (Soviet Socialist Republic).
  • In 1923, USSR established the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, a home to 95% ethnically Armenian population within Azerbaijan SSR.
  • When Soviet Union was dissolved, Armenia and Azerbaijan achieved statehood, and the Nagorno-Karabakh region was officially declared independent.
  • The region saw the first war between 1988 and 1994 killing about 30,000 people, and Armenia captured Nagorno-Karabakh along with the 20% of Azerbaijan's geographical area.
  • In 1994, Russia brokered a ceasefire known as Bishkek Protocol which created a self-proclaimed government in Stepanakert in the Nagorno-Karabakh region.
  • The second war broke out in September 2020, sixteen years later, where Azerbaijan recaptured previously lost territory around Nagorno-Karabakh region.
  • Russia again tried to broker a deal for letting the Lachin Corridor, the only roadway connecting Nagorno-Karabakh to Armenia, open between the two countries, but Azerbaijan demanded more concessions.
  • In December 2022, the Lachin Corridor was blockaded by Azerbaijan, causing severe shortages of essential goods including food, fuel and water in Nagorno-Karabakh region.

Recent Activities:-

  • On 19 September, 2023, seeing it as a opportunity within tensions, Azerbaijan launched an "anti-terrorist" offensive in Nagorno-Karabakh and claimed to regained full control over the region.
  • This action has triggered large migration of ethnic Armenians, with more than 80% Nagorno-Karabakh population crossing over to Armenia.
  • Azerbaijan is said to have got support from Turkey and Pakistan in the form of weapons and personnel.
  • It is believed that the ethnic Armenian enclave would dissolve on January1, 2024.
Source - Indian Express

© Best IAS . All rights reserved | Designed & Developed By : The Webdeb Distributed by Tech and Fun Zone